A woven cloth or material of organic or inorganic filaments, threads, or yarns used for reinforcement in certain membranes and flashings.
commonly referred to as “FM,” a research and testing organization that classifies roofing components and assemblies for their fire, traffic, impact (hail), weathering, and wind-uplift resistance for four major insurance companies in the United States.
A splice/seam made by the manufacturer during the assembly of sections of materials into larger sheets/panels.
Any lightening of initial color.
(1) in steep-slope roofing, a board that is nailed to the ends of a roof rafter; sometimes supports a gutter; (2) in low-slope roofing, the vertical or steeply sloped roof or trim located at the perimeter of a building. Typically, it is a border for the low-slope roof system.
Any of a wide variety of mechanical securement devices and assemblies, including nails, staples, screws, cleats, clips and bolts, which may be used to secure various components of a roof assembly.
Tapered wood filler strips placed along the butt ends of old wood shingles to create a relatively smooth surface when reroofing over existing wood shingle roofs. Referred to in some regions of the country as “horse feathers,” or leveling strips.
A flexible sheet manufactured by the interlocking of fibers with a binder or through a combination of mechanical work, moisture and heat. Felts are manufactured principally from wood pulp and vegetable fibers (organic felts), asbestos fibers (asbestos felts), glass fibers (glass fiber felts or ply sheets), or polyester fibers.
A mechanical device used for applying bitumen and roofing felt or ply sheet simultaneously.
A metal sleeve placed inside a gutter at the top. A spike or screw is nailed/screwed through the gutter face and ferrule into the fascia board to hold the gutter in place. The ferrule acts as a spacer in the gutter to maintain its original shape.
A splice or seam made in the field (not factory) where overlapping sheets are joined together using an adhesive, splicing tape, or heat- or solvent-welding.
A relatively inert ingredient added to modify physical characteristics.
A heavy bead of waterproofing compound or sealant material generally installed at the point where vertical and horizontal surfaces meet; to reduce the desired effect to take out the 90° angle at the base of a vertical flashing.
Sheeting having a nominal thickness not greater than 10 mils (0.25 mm).
The thickness of a membrane or coating. Wet film thickness is the thickness of a coating as applied; dry film thickness is the thickness after curing. Film thickness is usually expressed in mils (thousandths of an inch).
A term used to describe a deck surface condition. A sharp raised edge (generally in concrete) capable of damaging a roof membrane or vapor retarder.
Water-insoluble, inorganic material, more than 50 percent of which passes through a No. 35 sieve. Used on the surface of various roofing materials and membranes to prevent sticking.
The property of a material or assembly to withstand fire or give protection from it.
Plywood which has been impregnated, under pressure, with mineral salts; in the event of fire, the burning wood and salts emit noncombustible gases and water vapor instead of the usual flammable vapors.
(also referred to as an edge wrinkle) (1) a half-cylindrical or half-conical shaped opening or void in a lapped edge or seam, usually caused by wrinkling or shifting of ply sheets during installation; (2) in shingles, a halfconical opening formed at a cut edge.
In protective coatings, the detachment of small pieces of the coating film.
A chemical used to impart flame resistance
The propagation of a flame away from its source of ignition.
Those characteristics of a material that pertain to its relative ease of ignition and ability to sustain combustion.
Subject to easy ignition and rapid flaming combustion.
The projecting edge of a rigid or semi-rigid component, such as a metal edge flashing flange.
The lowest temperature at which vapors above a volatile combustible substance ignite in air when exposed to a flame.
Components used to weatherproof or seal roof system edges at perimeters, penetrations, walls, expansion joints, valley, drains and other places where the roof covering is interrupted or terminated. For example, membrane base flashing covers the edge of the field membrane, and cap flashings or counterflashings shield the upper edges of the base flashing.
A trowelable mixture of solvent-based bitumen and mineral stabilizers that may include asbestos or other inorganic or organic fibers. Generally, flashing cement is characterized as vertical-grade, which indicates it is intended for use on vertical surfaces. (see Asphalt Roof Cement and Plastic Cement.)
An accessory flashing used to cover and/or seal soil pipe vents and other penetrations through the roof.
Sometimes referred to as a roof jack or flashing boot.
The function of flashings is to provide a watertight junction between roofing materials and roof projections or other parts of the structure, and between roof sections. Flashings should be designed to furnish service for at least as long as the materials used in the field of the roof. Flashings are the most vulnerable part of any roof. Their importance and the importance of maintaining them properly cannot be overemphasized.
Many early roof problems are actually flashing problems. Often, repairing the flashings or providing new flashings is all that is needed to make the roof watertight again. Most flashing problems result from inadequate flashing design or faulty construction. Many flashing problems can be reduced or eliminated by careful examination by competent inspectors during roof installation, and by regularly scheduled inspection and maintenance.
In many instances, leaks occur at flashings where there are no flashing defects. These leaks may be the result of open joints in a masonry wall or coping cap, which permits water to enter behind the flashings and into the building. This problem may be eliminated by “through-wall” flashings.
A method of interlocking metal panels in which one panel edge is folded back on top of itself and the other panel is folded under, after which the two panels are hooked together.
A flat roof is a type of covering of a building. In contrast to the sloped form of a roof, a flat roof is horizontal or nearly horizontal. Materials that cover flat roofs typically allow the water to run off freely from a very slight inclination.
Traditionally flat roofs would use a tar and gravel based surface which, as long as there was no pooling of water, was sufficient to prevent penetration. However, these surfaces would tend to fail in colder climates, where ice dams and the like could block the flow of water. Similarly, they tend to be sensitive to sagging of the roof reversing the subtle grading of the surface.
Modern flat roofs tend to use a continuous membrane covering which can better resist pools of standing water. These membranes are applied as a continuous sheet where possible, though sealants and adhesives are available to allow for bonding multiple sheets and dealing with structures penetrating the roof surface. Far more expensive flat roof options include sealed metal roofs using copper or tin. These are soldered interlocking systems of metal panels.
Mats or felts composed of fibers, sometimes used as a membrane backer.
The surfacing layer of bitumen into which surfacing aggregate is embedded on an aggregatesurfaced built-up roof.
The procedure in which a controlled amount of water is temporarily retained over a horizontal surface to determine the effectiveness of the waterproofing system.
A liquid elastomeric material that cures after application to form a continuous waterproofing membrane.
Method of application for roll materials by which the dry sheet is set into the bitumen or adhesive applied to the roof surface.
The roof edge treatment upon which SPF is terminated.
A strength or energy exerted or brought to bear; cause of motion or change.
Forest Products Laboratory.
A term used to describe small, disposable aerosol cans that contain SPF components. Two component froth packs are available to do small repairs for sprayed polyurethane foam-based roofs.